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Cold air from Canada, warm, humid air from the Gulf of Mexico, and dry air from the southwest all affect Jefferson City, as well as the state as a whole. The city experiences a good deal of rain in the spring, and in the winter, the snow averages 23.5 inches per year. Snow usually occurs between December and February. Missouri is also in a location that puts it at risk for tornados. The summer can get up to (and sometimes past) 100° F, while winters are fairly cold.
January: 28.7° F
Annual: 54.4° F
In order to avoid the intense heat or the precipitation, you might want to consider visiting Jefferson City in the early autumn, when temperatures will have cooled.