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Situated in the Southeast Europe, Romania’s natural boundaries are the Danube River in the south, the Prut River in the east, and the Tisa River in the north (for a small section). The country borders Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova in the east and north, Hungary in the west and north-west, Serbia in the south-west and Bulgaria in the south.
Surface area: 238,391 square kilometers.
Population: 21,733,556 inhabitants (2003), of which 89% are Romanians. The largest minorities are Hungarians and Szeklers (7.1%), and Roma (1.7%).
Official Language: Romanian.
Other languages: Hungarian, Roma (Gypsy) and others.
Form of Government: Republic.
Main religion: Orthodox Christianity (86.8% of the population). Other Christian denominations: Roman Catholic (5%), Graeco – Catholic (Uniate) (1%), Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%.
National Flag: red, yellow and blue, in vertical bands, with blue next to the flagpole.
Capital: Bucharest (1.9 million inhabitans as of 2009), situated in the south–east of the country, on the Wallachian Plain, on the banks of the Dambovita and Colentina rivers; first attested in 1459.
Official time: GMT+3 hours during summer (from the last Sunday in March until the last Sunday in October) and GMT+2 hours during the rest of the year.
Climate: Temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog, sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. The average temperature in summer is 22-24 degrees Celsius, but maximum temperatures may even reach 40 degrees Celsius. In the winter, the average temperature is bellow minus 3 degrees Celsius.
National currency: Leu or RON. 1 leu= 100 bani. Bills in circulation: 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 lei. Coins in circulation: 1, 5, 10 and 50 bani. Currency exchange: at banks and at currency exchange offices, which can be found in hotels, airports and train stations and on main urban thoroughfares. It is advisable not to exchange money on the black market, in order to avoid being cheated. Credit cards: large hotels, restaurants and supermarkets usually accept American Express, MasterCard, Diner’s Club and Visa. Payments by credit card are becoming more widespread.
Telephone prefixes for Romania: country code – 0040; Bucharest – 021 (when dialing from outside the capital) or 21 (when dialing from abroad).
Emergency telephones: 112 (for emergency services anywhere within the country).Official holidays: 1 December – National Day of Romania; 1 and 2 January – New Year; 1 May – Labor Day; the first and second days of Easter; 25 and 26 December – Christmas.