First, check this great video on Peru : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r7QNZV...

The base of this article is in the ancient Inka empire, which occupied most of the Pacific coast of South America, this is the reason why many products are  considered of Peruvian origin. Read here for more information on the Inka empire: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inca_Empire

Quinoa is a Peruvian high protein cereal with 25 varieties, which is finally being known around the world. Olluco is a Peruvian tuber with over 30 varieties.For more information on quinoa read : http://vegetarian.about.com/od/glossa...

 

The potato is originally from Peru and we produce over 3000 varieties.

The Tomato is originally from Peru, and it is a close relative of the Potato. Read here for more information on the Peruvian tomato :  http://solgenomics.net/organism/1485/...

The corn from Peru is a variety with the biggest kernels in the world amongst 32 others produced. Corn is originally from the Americas, including Peru. You can read here for more information on corn: http://www.agron.iastate.edu/courses/...

Some believe that Peruvian avocados are the softest because of their high concentration of fat.  There is debate about whether or not avocados from Mexico, Israel, and certainly in other parts of the world, can be just as "soft", however in other countries it is not usually left to mature to such a degree. For more information on avocados read: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avocado

Peruvian food has 468 different registered typical dishes .

Pima cotton is generally extra-long staple cotton. Tanguis cotton is highly regarded worldwide.Peruvian cotton is a FINE cotton, it is regarded as one of the FINEST.Read more information on the Tanguis cotton :  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferm%C3%...

For more information on Pima cotton :  http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-pima-...

Some believe the weeping willow is originally from Peru and it produces the base for aspirin. Others say its origins are, without doubt, China. Read this for more information on the weeping willow :  http://www.buzzle.com/articles/weepin...

Tara is a Peruvian tree from which tannin is produced for the production of dyes.

 

Yacon originates from the Andes mountain regions. The exact origin isn't really known. It is a food recommended for diabetics. For more information read: http://yacon.org/

Maca, a Peruvian root, has been in use in Peru for hundreds of years. It works similarly to VIAGRA: http://www.med.nyu.edu/content?ChunkI... 

The Plaza de Acho is the second oldest bull ring made in the world. It was built in the days of viceroy Amat in 1766.

The National University of San Marcos is the oldest in the Americas and was founded on the 12th of May of 1551.

The oldest newspaper in South America is El Peruano, founded by Simon Bolivar in Lima in 1825

One of the highest train pass in the world is in Ticlio at 4815 meters above sea level (15793 feet). This passenger train is now again departing from Lima once a week and goesbto Huancayo city

Amongst the deepests canyons in the world are Cotahuasi (3600 meters / 11,810 ft) and Colca (3400 meters / 11,150 ft), both near Arequipa, Peru's second biggest city.  Incidentally, the Grand Canyon in Colorado, USA, is only 1600 meters / 5,300 ft deep.

Get the Wikipedia version here :  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotahuas...

The highest dune in the world is Cerro Blanco, 1176 m (3858 ft) from the base, near Nazca, in the coastal Peru. Height from sea level is 2080 m (6791 ft)

The Andes mountains in Peru have :

  •  50 peaks over 6000 meters ( 19,685 ft ).
  • 1769 Glaciers
  • 12000 lakes and lagoons of different lenghts and depths

In Peru, you can find 1701 species of birds, making it the most in any country in the world.

Mejia lakes in Arequipa are the habitat of thousands of migratory birds. More than 150 varieties come each year, 50% of which are permanent residents and the rest come from all parts of the world.

Peru is second in the world with 34 species of primates, third with 361 species of mammals, fifth with 297 species of reptiles and 251 amphibious.

Peru has 84 of the 103 ecological zones in the world.

The Peruvian flower is the Cantuta, and the bird is the Gallito de las Rocas (the rooster of the rocks).

Entomologists in Madre de Dios found a Shihuahuaco (asterix) tree with 5000 insect species of which 80% were seen for the first time.

The first catalogue of Peruvian flora, categorizes 3000 varieties of which :

  • 524 are edible
  • 401 are wood
  • 334 are toxic for the use of insecticides
  • 213 are medicinal
  • 110 are used for colorants
  • 100 are used for the manufacturing of tools
  • 90 are ornamental
  • 36 are used for the production of oils and waxes
  • 35 are used for the manufacturing of drinks.

In Peru you can find close to 1625 types of orchids (425 in the Machu Picchu area).

Sunflowers are native to the Americas and Peru and were domesticated around 1000 B.C. Francisco Pizarro found the Inca subjects venerating the sunflower as an image of their sun god. Gold images of the flower, as well as seeds, were taken back to Europe early in the 16th century.

Peru is the biggest producer in Latin America of gold, zinc and lead. It is the second world producer of copper. Antamina is the biggest cooper-zinc mine in the world and Camisea is the second biggest gas reserve.

You can find 28 different climates in Peru, making it to be one of the 5 biggest biodiversities in the world.

In the Peruvian ocean you can find over 700 fish species and 400 crustaceans. 20 out of 67 species of whales in the world as well.

The Amazon river, which starts in Peru, is the largest river in the world by volume (with a total river flow greater than the next eight largest rivers combined) and one of the two cleanest (Congo river being the other). It flows 150,000 cubic meters per second.

The Lord of Sipan tomb, in Chiclayo, is the oldest in the Americas and the most magnificent.

Caral, just 114 miles north of Lima, is the oldest discovered city in the Americas (between 2600 BC and 2000 BC).

 

Some good news on Peruvian coffee :http://www.peruthisweek.com/news-3404...

Pisco IS Peruvian. Its origins go back to the XVI century, when it was first produced by the Spaniards from quebranta grapes (a variation of Muscat), growing in the vineyards of the Ica Valley. Its name comes from the Pisco port, in Ica, some 250 km south of Lima.