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Full Details:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran 

Here are some useful facts about Iran:

Communication 

Telephone : IDD service available. Country code: 98. Outgoing international code: 00.
Telex/telegram : Facilities are available at the Central Telegraph Office, Meydan Sepah, Tehran. There are also telex facilities at the major hotels.
Post : Post Offices are found throughout all cities, towns and villages.

 

Dress
According to the Islamic and social beliefs in Iran, it is necessary for women to be modestly covered & wearing a head scarf. Wearing shorts is inappropriate.

 

Duty Free
The import of the following goods into Iran is strictly prohibited: Alcohol, narcotics, guns and ammunitions, radio apparatus, fashion magazines and obscene publications, and filmed, recorded or printed material carrying views contrary to those held by the Islamic regulations. Each passenger leaving the country is permitted to take his/her own personal luggage as well as Persian handicrafts, Gelims and one carpet (not bigger than 3 sq meters) as long as they are not antiques. Export of all antiques such as gems, coins, handwritten manuscripts is prohibited.
To export musical instruments, a permit is required from the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance.

 

Government
Legislative power is vested in the Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majlis), with 275 members. The chief executive is the President, and both are elected by universal adult suffrage for a four-year term.
A twelve-member Council of Guardians ensures that legislation is in accordance with the constitution and Islamic precepts.

 

Language
Persian (Farsi) is the most widely spoken language. Arabic is spoken in Khuzestan in the southwest, and Turkish in the northwest around Tabriz. English, French and (to a lesser extent) German are spoken by many businessmen and officials.

 

Location
Middle East .
Area : 1,648,000 sq km (636,296 sq miles).
Population : 68,727,000 (1998 estimate).
Population Density : 35 persq km.
Capital : Tehran. Population : 8,042,584(1994)
Geography : Iran is located in the Middle East, bounded to the north by the CIS and the Caspian Sea, the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and the west by Iraq and Turkey.
The center and east of the country is largely barren undulating desert, punctured by Qantas (irrigation canals and tree eases, but there are mountainous regions in the west along the Turkish and Iraqi borders and in the north where the Alburz Mountains rise steeply from a fertile belt around the Caspian Sea.

 

Money
Currency : Iranian Rials. Notes are in denominations of RL 10000, 5000, 2000, 1000, 500, 200 and 100. Coins are in denominations of 250, 100, 50, 20, 10 and 5. Due to high rate of inflation, most establishments no longer give you the currency in Rials. Use of Tomans instead has become more commonplace for high ticket items. An item costing $315 in today's market (2009) in Iran will be 300,000 tomans. You might also hear 300 tomans for short, which means 300,000 tomans. All foreign currencies such as Deutsch Marks, Pound Sterling, US Dollars and Yens can be exchanged and credit cards (Mastercard & Visa) are also accepted.

 

Passport/Visa
Entry restrictions : Nationals of Israel will be refused entry under all circumstances.
Passports : Valid passport required by all.
Visas : Required by all except nationals of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Saudi Arabia and Turkey (for a stay not exceeding 3 months). Requirements are subject to change at short notice, and you are advised to contact the appropriate Embassy or Consular Section.
Types of visa : Entry, Transit, Business, Tourist and Journalist. Fee varies according to nationality of applicant, type of' visa and the existing regulation between countries.
Note: A visa cannot be issued for passports which have a validity of less than 6 months. Exit permits required by all (often included with visa). Validity : Entry visa: up to 3 months from date of authorization with a maximum stay of 30 days.
Transit visa : maximum of 10 days. Application to: Embassy or Consulate. For addresses, see entries.
Application requirements: A completed application form, one passport - sized photos and visa fees. For US citizens, a visa approval should be obtained from the Foreign Ministry of Iran through a contact there, and then applied for at the Interest Section of Iran at the Embassy of Pakistan in Washington D.C.
Note: To acquire a tourist visa within 10 days, it would be easier to apply to local tour operators in Iran.
Temporary residence: All foreigners wishing to stay for more than three months must obtain a residence permit.

 

Religion

Predominantly Islamic; mostly Shi'ite, with a minority of Sunnis. Many Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians also live in Iran.