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In theory there are 3 seasons in northern Thailand:
El Nino is a bad boy, his sister El nina is no better, they're messing up with the weather... well they have an excuse, humans feed them with carbon dyoxide, but still, it is becoming difficult to predict the weather. This year it's been raining in December and during a large part of May.
So you'll understand that the following is not 100% foolproof.
Usually the seasons change quite abruptly during the transition months, October/November, February/March, June/July. The landscapes and nature can look quite different, and this might be an important factor for some travellers. For a visual idea visit When is the best time to visit northern Thailand ?
During the cool season , the max. temperatures reach a comfortable 25° C, nights and early morning are cool in the city (15°), cold in the countryside (10°), possibly freezing in the mountains (ice is reported from time to time at Doi Inthanon). Though you'll probably find it great when you walk around the city, you'll really feel the cold if you decide to ride a motorbike, then the air turns crispy and it's not uncommon to need jacket, gloves and scarf (before noon or after 6 PM). Otherwise the sky is blue, without clouds. The good thing is, you don't need to turn on the air conditioning to sleep.
During the hot season, the max. temperatures can reach 40° C and won't drop below 25°C at night. Many rooms keep the warmth accumulated during the day so you'll definitely need a full blast fan or a proper air con to sleep well. The sun is scorching, play the lizard between noon and 2PM or you'll soon take on the color of a boiled lobster (with a burning sensation to match). Another must is to drink loads of water, 4 or 5 liters even if you don't feel thirsty (no you won't spend your time in the toilet, the water evaporates beforehand, through every pore in your skin). Local talcum powder (with cooling effect) works wonders to keep a fresh look.
During the raining season, the max. temperatures stay over 30° C, evenings can be hot or cool depending if it has been raining or not. But what you lose in temperature, you gain in humidity, it doesn't make it more comfortable. Bad weather usually comes in 3 to 4 day periods, and alternates with fine weather. So, those fortunate ones can spend a week under the sun most of their time, while others will have rain, rain and more rain... it's a bit of a lottery. Rain comes in every form, at anytime, day and night: heavy downpour for an hour or two , small drizzle all day... better to bring your own raincoat, the plastic ponchoes sold here are real sweat factories.
When to come then ?