The name Estremadura or Extremadura, comes from the fact that the Spaniards called this area during the Reconquest and part of the 12th century a land of 'extremes', or in other words, a frontier area bordering on Muslims domains. The area now is composed of much of Roman Lusitania. However, when the Arab invasion took place, the territory of Extremadura completely fell to the Arabs until 1230, when Alfonso IX salvaged the area.

The Portuguese Crown of Leon badly wanted to re-settle these lands by giving orders to create feudal farms in the area. However, in the mi-12th century people in various towns began to fight back to Santiago, Alcantara. However, people began to fight for the lands such as the Temple, the Hospital, castles and villages. In the middle of the 14 century, Portugal began to try to suceed and conquer the towns of Extremadura, attempts which lasted for a period of two centuries.

Before 1883, the whole area was bard of Badajoz. However, in 1883 the territory was divided into two provinces: Caceres which is part of the Upper Extremadura and Badajoz which is part of the Lower Extremadura.

There was little change in the region in the last century, except after civil war broke out.