There are two rail companies for intercity travel in Italy. Trenitalia is the national system that runs both regional and high-speed routes. NTV is a recent private competitor offering service on two high speed lines (Venice-Florence-Rome, Turin-Milan-Florence- Rome-Naples-Salerno, and now Ancona-Rimini-Bologna-Milan). If traveling between cities, the train will be easier, cheaper, and faster than the alternatives of driving and even flying.

There are a few basic types of train service:

High-speed trains include connections between the main Italian cities. These trains reach speeds up to 300 km/h and do not make many, if any, intermediate stops. Trenitalia names its high-speed trains  frecce ("arrow"): Frecciarossa and Frecciargento. The differences between these are minor and simply connote the different trains for different lines. All of NTV's "Italo" trains are high-speed trains. Reservations are required for all high-speed trains, including for rail-pass holders (see below). Both Trenitalia and NTV publish discount fares in advance; these are generally nonrefundable and come with prohibitions or restrictions on changes, but they are much cheaper: e.g. Rome-Venice at a sale fare of €29 or €49 vs. standard fare of €80. (See Booking Online, below)

Regionale trains connect provincial cities and smaller towns to the major cities and have more intermediate stops. These are slower and less plush but can be a good way to experience the sights of rural and provincial Italy. Regionale Veloce (fast regional) trains work the same way but have fewer intermediate stops. Neither allow for seat reservations or require advance booking. In fact, there is no price or convenience advantage to advance purchase (in any case, available online only up to 7 days before date of travel). Rail pass users can ride these trains without supplemental charges. If using a train ticket purchased at the station, be absolutely sure to validate the ticket before boarding (see below).

Frecciabianca and  Intercity trains are two intermediate categories. They connect cities with more intermediate stops than high-speed trains and fewer than a Regionale or even Regionale Veloce train. Sometimes they duplicate the high-speed routes, but more slowly (Rome-Florence-Venice, Milan-Bologna...), and sometimes they connect cities not serviced by high-speed lines. These require reservation/advance purchase, but the fare difference is often not as stark as on the high-speed trains.

The difference between first and second class varies by train type. For a visual comparison, see Man in Seat 61's descriptions. 2nd class is perfectly comfortable for many (most?) travelers, but it's a matter of personal preference and budget. Adult raipasses generally default to 1st class service and is priced accordingly.

Booking tickets online

Buying tickets online in advance can save a lot of money. However, note that these cheaper tickets are not easily changed, if changeable at all, so if you miss your train, you lose the cost of your ticket. Pay attention to the cancellation and change terms for the tickets before purchasing. 

Only a finite number of sale-fare seats are set aside, and as these get booked up the price goes up. For popular routes and times, the cheapest tickets can sell out in the matter of days, even hours. Schedules and tickets are released 120 in advance with the major exception of a twice-yearly schedule change, early in June and December: Italy's rail system is slow to release the schedules and it may seriously shorten the advance purchase window. There are some references to €9 fares in the TA forums. While some €9 fares may still be out there for some routes, many of the Super Economy tickets have been running higher lately, €19 and even €29. It's still a bargain for a high-speed train going that distance.

Online purchase will give you an e-ticket you can print out. Just board the train, find your seats, and give the conductor your booking information when he/she comes round. 

The ItaloTreno website (for NTV trains) is user-friendly and gets few complaints on TA forums.

The Trenitalia website  can be terrifically helpful, or terribly confusing. It's the major reference for researching schedules even if you are not buying a ticket. Here are some of the quirks:

- The fares for regional trains are not shown beyond 7 days in advance, unless you are looking at a journey which includes both a regional train and a faster train. To see the fares of regional trains on their own, simply choose a date over the next week; ideally on the same day of the week that you wish to travel.

- The Italian version of the site defaults to a Frecce search only, so to search for other trains you need to select "Tutti i treni". The English version searches both. 

- The search fields require you to enter stations, not simply cities. And it requires the Italian names: Torino, Milano, Firenze, Venezia, Roma, Napoli, etc.  It will default to the major stations. Centrale refers of course to central stations, and other major central stations are: Venezia S. Lucia (Venezia Mestre is on the mainland), Firenze S.M. Novella, and Roma Termini.

- The date must be entered in the format DD MM YYYY, and the time of travel must be set in the "Hour" field. (It defaults to the local time on your computer, which may throw your date off.) Note that European calendar formats start the week with Monday, as opposed to Sunday (as US/Canadian users might expect). It's a simple thing, but some people get the wrong date because of that.

- It is not necessary to register with Trenitalia to book most popular journeys, but registration does allow you to more easily retrieve reservations and to make changes to tickets (Economy and Full fares only). Ignore the CartaFreccia discounts, though: that's a loyalty card for Italian residents. Registration is however necessary to book any journeys which include a regional train.

There are occasional problems with credit card purchase from overseas. Be sure to call your credit card company  before your purchase on Trenitalia's website to let them know that you are making a foreign purchase by Internet.  Otherwise your purchase may be denied.  Once you select your tickets and choose your credit card option, you may be asked to sign up for another service called Verified by Visa if you want to use your Visa card.  This is not much extra effort, but be prepared to respond and take note of another password that is required for this service.  Multiple purchases of tickets may require multiple calls to your credit card company, as they sometimes deny the second or third purchase so you have to call again.  Sometimes the customer service area will stay on the line with you to authorize each purchase as it is submitted.

If a credit card is repeatedly rejected by the Trenitalia web site, ItaliaRail and Captain Train are other options.

On ItaliaRail, people from outside Italy can buy Trenitalia tickets at the Trenitalia price (including the discounts for advance purchase) through These are e-tickets, so there is no charge for delivery, and the prices in $USD, $CAD or £GBP are very close to Trenitalia's prices in €. Buying through this site provides a way of getting the advance purchase discounts available on Trenitalia's site without the markup of RailEurope. One can pay in local currency without needing to contact one's credit card company. There is a transaction fee ( US$5 or equivalent), but they sometimes waive that for readers of TA forums or Man in Seat 61 websites, so it's worth mentioning them.

On Captain Train people from outside Italy can compare prices and timetables for the two main operators Trenitalia and Italo, and buy all Italian tickets at the original price (including the discounts for advance purchase), without any transaction fee. 

For more booking instructions and tips, TA member Sydneynick has a page on booking Italian train tickets online:

Validating Tickets

Visitors are often caught unawares by train and transport systems requiring validation and this can result in being fined a minimum of 50euros. Tickets bought in Italy for Regionale and Regionale Veloce trains are not marked for any particular time or train and become valid only when time-stamped at a validation machine. Without this validation, train operators assume the rider is trying to fare dodge, since the ticket could be reused. So validation is absolutely essential before boarding, and there are small boxes in the station or near the platform: Seat 61 has a picture. After being time-stamped, the ticket is valid for the amount of time shown on the ticket.

Validating tickets which include the seat reservation is unnecessary. These tickets can only be used on specific trains of specific days ( i.e. all tickets for Intercity, Eurocity, Frecciabianca, Frecciargento, Frecciarossa, Italo).


When purchasing tickets online a PNR code is given. This is an alphanumeric code of 6 characters which entitles to travel without printing nor having to collect any paper ticket. It completely matches the travel solution purchased - day, train, carriage, seat, departure, destination, price. When asked for tickets onboard the train, the PNR code has to be shown or told to the ticket inspector who will check its validity.

Lost items 

Though unlikely a lot item will be found, one reader in July 2015 confirmed that when his tablet was forgotten on a train arriving in Venice,. Trenitalia emailed him within six hours about the lost tablet.  The owners email address came up when the tablet was turned on.  Miracles still happen in Italy.  It had to be retrieved from the Customer Service desk at Trenitalia.


  • treno = train
  • partenze = departures
  • arrivi = arrivals
  • in ritardo = late/delayed
  • stazione ferroviaria = railway station
  • binario = track
  • marciapiede = platform
  • ovest/est = west/east, sometimes used for platform numbers
  • convalidare = to validate ticket
  • vagone/carrozza = rail car/wagon
  • posto = seat
  • biglietti = tickets
  • ferma a = calls in
  • in testa al treno = ahead the train
  • a centro treno = in the in the center of the train
  • in coda al treno = in the rear of the train

Is there a Railpass to get for Italy?

In general, rail passes are a lousy option for Italy. Their main selling point, the flexibility of walking up a train and hopping on, doesn't apply to the high speed that require reservations which cost €10 a person per route. Advance purchase tickets will always be cheaper than a pass, and even for walk-up fares, you'll want to make sure your per-day cost for the pass is less than the walk-up fare + €10. There may be a few travelers for whom that's the case, but most travelers are better served with point-to-point tickets.

If you do have a rail pass, you can get up-to-date information on conditions and supplements here:

Further reference

For details of facilities available, and the layout, at the larger stations...

The Man in Seat 61 is a comprehensive site on rail travel and has a good section on Italy.

TA member GAC has some informative posts on train travel. For instance this one on when a regional train between Rome and Florence is a good idea or this overview of transport from Rome to Positano.