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The so called pre-talaiotic culture are first proof of human presence in the balearic islands dating back to around 3500 - 3000 a.c. and thought to be of oriental origin. The talaiotic culture from 1500 to 123 a.c. which concluded with the Roman invasion mainly affected the larger islands(Mallorca and Menorca) whilst Ibiza and Formentera where ignored.
The Balearics, which are formed by the islands of Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, and Formentera, have hosted a tremendous mix of civilisations throughout their history. From greek and fenician invasions and their subsequent commercial activities through the subsequently roman domination of the medditerranean which resulted in them invading and conquering the islands in 123 a.c. Later in 455 a.c. els vàndals invaded the islands followed shortly after in 534 by the tropes de Justinià
During the l`imperi de Bizanci From VII to the IX centuries the balearics suffered an economic and demographic crisis. From the X to the XIII centturies the Arab emirate of Cordova invaded the islands bringing a new religios and cultural influence to the islands.
the Catalan Jaume the 1st invaded Mallorca in 1229 and Eivissa and formentera in 1235. Alfonso the 3rd invaded Menorca in 1287. This meant the Balearic islands went on to be part of the occidental Christian culture.
From 1812 to 1978 the islands where subject to a centralist spanish government, which was attemting to emulate France's unified state model. The Catalan language was excluded from public, education, and commercial life. With the advent of the 2nd republic(1931), there was a failed attempt to make the balearics an automomous state. General Franco's dictatorship(1936 - 1975) signified a return to a centralised government and the subsequent persecution of both catalan language and culture.
The advent of the Spanish constitution in 1978 finally allowed the approval of laws that made the balearics a semi-autonomous state, this has allowed the partial independence of the islands. Regional government now manages many competencies such as education, and health amongst others and catalan along with spanish are the official languages of the islands.