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Also commonly spelled Kharkov, Kharkiv is Ukraine’s second-largest city, and with about a million and a half people, and a main cultural, educational and industrial city for the country. Founded in the 17th century, the city is in Ukraine’s northeast (not far from the Russian border) and served briefly as its capital in the early 20th century, after it became a Soviet republic. Kharkiv’s top attractions include its zoo, its history museum, Freedom (Svoboda) Square and the Holy Shroud Cathedral.