When Edward I conquered the Welsh in the late 13th century and brought them under England's wing, he built 17 castles throughout Wales to help "keep the peace" and assimilate the English into Wales. Caernarfon, his intended seat of government, is perhaps the most important and well-preserved of them all. (Some are, in fact, only ruins now.) It is also the place where his son, who later became Edward II, was born and invested as the first English Prince of Wales. There's a great story about Edward beginning the long tradition of making the heir apparent to the English throne the Prince of Wales. Be sure to look into it in the excellent exhibit on the Prince of Wales. There is also a sentimental video of Prince Charles' investiture at Caernarfon Castle in 1969 - a little bit of recent history.
Besides the excellent exhibits on the Prince of Wales and the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, it is just plain fun to roam around this castle - along the top of the wall and in the space inside the thick interior walls. Lots of nooks and crannies to explore and a beautiful outdoor space to sit and reflect on all that history.
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