There are no real mountain passes between Abq and Phoenix. I40 can be a difficult drive if there is a storm, but usually the highway is cleared soon. Visit Petrified Forest NP, Flagstaff, Grand Canyon
Here's a site for Tucson. There's much to see and do:
5 days 'will be short for a trip like yours esp if you want to include Grand Canyon NP.
You'll likely not run into any adverse road conditions unless you're driving through or just after an active storm. The stretch of greatest concern would be Albuquerque to Flagstaff as they do get quite a bit of weather along that stretch. But like I said, if you're not driving through an active storm, you'll most likely be just fine as they do a good job of clearing the interstates.
As far as temps and the like, they are going to vary wildly. Phoenix and Tuscon should be very pleasant with highs approaching the low 70s and lows in the mid 40s. Southern NM, you can expect to be a bit cooler with highs in the 60s and lows right around freezing. Albuquerque you can expect highs in the 40s with lows in the upper 20s.
That said, anything can happen in February...I usually start getting my first inclings of spring fever as it is not uncommon to get a few "tease" days around here that time of year...only to be reminded a day later that yes, it is still indeed winter.
Just to add. No mountain pass in NM on I40 going west from ABQ but the stretch from Grants to Gallup can be treacherous in the middle of and just after a winter storm. (Black ice or low visibility.) Interstate even closed some times. Flagstaff can get hit hard from winter storm and that is much higher up. (Grand Canyon can be absolutely beautiful after a fresh snowfall.) I know many people driving between ABQ and Phoenix take the route that goes through Show Low. I'd say that's a mountain pass for White Mountains. Nice town, sort of a gateway for some recreational areas and I'm sure that can get some snow with a winter storm. I've never taken route from Show Low continuing on to Phoenix so can't really advise for winter driving. Absent a winter storm (the forecasters can see the front moving in before it hits, so you can make alternative plans), you could have very pleasant temperatures with sunny skies along most of your route in southern AZ, southern NM and also ABQ and along I40, with big drops (20-30 degrees) at night. Sedona is beautiful but I've never been in winter. If you are in ABQ, you should consider Santa Fe, too. Santa Fe can have a bit more snow than ABQ, but again I think you only need to be concerned if there's a storm the day of or day before your trip. Driving conditions otherwise are typically very good. Except in the mountains, the snow is usually gone within a day.
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