Shumen is the tenth largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and economic capital of Shumen Province.
The city was first mentioned as
Šimeonis in 1153 by the Arab traveler Idrisi. The name is probably from Bulgarian
shuma '(deciduous forest). Some believe Konstantin Jireček that it comes from the name of the Bulgarian emperor Simeon the Great. In the following periods, the city was mentioned with variants, such as
Şumen. The eleventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica lists it as
Shumla, similar to the way it lists Pleven as Plevna.
Earliest reports for Shumen fortress date back to the early Iron Age. From the 12th century BC is the first fort, surrounding accessible parts of the area. Archaeological surveys, conducted in 1957, 1961 to 1987, determined the chronological periods, the lifestyle and the livelihood of the inhabitants of the fortress. It had a wall thickness of about two meters, built of rough stones. In the 5th century BC a second wall was built in front of the former.