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Salzburg is made up of a number of different disticts or neighborhoods, but as a traveler, you probably won't feel the need to visit them all. The city is divided into two by the Salzach River - with Kapuzinerberg is on the left and Monchesberg is on the right.
The biggest tourist attraction is the Old Town (Altstadt) because it includes sights such as Mozart's birthplace, St. Peter's Cemetary and the Cathedral and its two adjacent squares (Residenzplatz and Kapitelplatz). There are concert halls, expensive houses, imposing, yet beautiful buildings from the baroque period and Mirabell Palace, to name a few other reasons to visit this area of town. The Old Town was actually named as a World Heritage Site in 1997 - an impressive feat, to say the least.
Noonberg is another neighborhood just south of Old Town, and travelers will know it best for its cameo in The Sound of Music as some scenes were shot here. Also in this area you'll find Hohensalzburg Fortress on Mönchsberg (Monks' mountain).
North of Old Town, you'll find more residential and business areas of town, while south is the neighborhood of Aigen, a place where the monied folks live - fabulous houses and extremely wealthy residents make up the greater part of this neighborhood. Go ahead and gawk.