The first record of a Salzburg Festung or Fortress on the southern side of the Mönchsberg Mountain dates back to Roman time, but this is not clear if this was the case. Prince Archbishop Eberhard (1060 to 1088) built the first castle on the Festungsberg in 1077. Initially, this was little more than a bailey with a wooden wall, serving mostly for the protection of Imperial troops of the Holy Roman Empire.

During the Thirty Years War, Prince Archbishop Paris Lodron (1619 to 1635) had to modernise Hohensalzburg – some roofs were altered and the outer walls were supplemented with an additional layer to make them stronger. At the same time, the city walls along the Kapuzinerberg and the Kuenburgbastei bastion were built and finished in 1681. Much of these walls were demolished in the 19th century. More information can be obtained at this Salzburg Sightseeing page.