There are four major museums in Samos which visitors should make it a point to visit during their stay there; the Archaeological Museum of Samos, the Archaeological Museum of Mytilene, the Theophilos Museum and the Theriade Museum of Modern Art.  For links to the locations of each of these four museums, visit http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction... .

The Archaeological Museum of Samos ( http://www.culture.gr/2/21/211/21121m... ) is actually two separate museums, known as the Old Museum (which dates back to 1912) and the New Museum (created in 1987).  This museum is a historical art museum which uses exhibits of sculptures, pottery and housewares dating back to B.C. times to provide interested visitors with insight in to the lives of the ancient Greeks who used to live in the area.

The real highlight of the museum is its collection of objects and statuary from the ancient temple complex, the Heraion (near modern Ireon and a must for all lovers of history and the classics).  Just when you think you've seen some wonderful examples of votive kouroi, you turn a corner and then...   You must go and see it (or rather him) for yourself.  Also on display is a very impressive haul of golden coins which were discovered either washed up or near a beach on the island.  The jug in which they were found is also on display.  The coins seem to date from the sixth or seventh century AD.  Sadly, there is a lack of information about this and other interesting exhibits in the museum and some of the attendants there do not speak English.  Nonetheless a truly marvellous museum as so many of these tiny municipal museums on Greek islands often are, and well worth a visit.

Similarly, the Archaeological Museum of Mytilene ( http://www.culture.gr/2/21/211/21120m... ) has an Old Building (dating back to the 1920’s when it was used as a residence) and a New Building (constructed in 1999).  This is another historical art museum, with the latter building focusing primarily on the history of the Lesbos.

Modern art being created in the area today is available for view at the Theriade Museum of Modern Art.   Modern art created specifically by the well-known artist Theophilos is on display at the museum named after him ( http://www.culture.gr/4/42/421/42107/... ).  

Samos also boasts a World Heritage Site in the pretty town of Pythagorio.  Here you will find the remains of an ancient early Christian basilica on the top of the hill next to the castle and the cemetery, on the main road coming into the town by the sea, Roman baths, and on the hillside the famous tunnel of Eupalinus which was used to hide Pythagorio's (or rather Tigani's, as it was once known) water supply from attackers.  There are also numerous other archaeological sites - temples and an agora - dotted about.  If you like to "do the ruins" when on holiday, this is truly the place for you.