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The 1st century B.C. is when the first historical records of the Netherlands were found. During this time, Roman troops forced Celtic and Germanic tribes out of the area. Romans lived peacefully there for the next 250 years.
In 300 A.D. German tribes invaded, and during the subsequent years managed to convert most of the locals to Christianity.
The Netherlands having most of its North and Eastern sides bordering water was often attacked by invaders of all sorts, including many Scandinavian Vikings during the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries.
It was in 1648 when the Dutch Republic was finally recognized by the Spanish, who had been at war with the Dutch for many years.
In the beginning of the 17th century, Holland began establishing itself as a major world trading power, and by the mid 1600’s it became the most powerful maritime country in Europe. Amsterdam (the country’s capital) became the financial center of Europe.
In 1810, Napoleon took control of the Netherlands for the French for a short while. Within a decade, the Dutch once again had their independence.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Holland grew economically. But during World War 1, the progress was destroyed as they lost key international trade partners.
Germany occupied the Netherlands during World War 2. After regaining its independence after the war, over the next few decades it lost control of all of its South East Asian Colonies.
The current queen Beatrix was married to Claus(he died in 2005) and has three sons, the first son will be the next king for 4 generations, Willem-Alexander. His wife Maxima is from Argentina and they married in 2002. He has three daughters, the oldest Catharina-Amalia, will be queen after Willem-Alexander. His second daughter is called Alexia and his youngest daughter is called Ariane. The second son of Queen Beatrix is Johan Friso, he married Mabel Wisse Smit in 2004.