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Florence's Archaeological Museum - housed in a palace with great Egyptian and Etruscan collections. Admission is less than 5 Euros.
Baptistery of John the Baptist - dates from the 11th century, mosaics inside, with three sets of amazing bronze doors visible from the outside. The gates of paradise by Ghiberti are copies, see the originals at the Opera del Duomo museum.
Il Duomo (Cattedrale de Santa Maria del Fiore) - The Florentine Gothic duomo was begun in 1296 and consecrated in 1436. THe facade dates to the 19th century. Brunelleschi's Dome is a masterpiece of construction. Entrance is free, but in summer you may have to wait in line to get in.
Uffizi Gallery - housed in a 1560 Medici palazzo, the recent renovations have meant that visitors don't have to wait outside and the galleries have expanded. There's a good view of Florence from the upper floors.
The Pitti Palace and Boboli Gardens. The palace encompasses several museums and holds paintings from some of Italy's most celebrated masters. The Renaissance gardens are a delight. Piazza Pitti, south of the Arno.
Dante's House (Casa di Dante)
The Ponte Vecchio - The Old Bridge looks from the outside as if it were still crowded with the crammed blacksmith and butcher shops of the medieval period, but it's all glittery gold and tourist baubles today. Spared from bombing in WWII, it used to be built of wood but a rebuild in the 1300's made it mostly stone.
The Church of San Lorenzo - It's not impressive from the outside because it was never finished, but it's one of the oldest religious structures in Florence, probably founded before year 400. It is an extremely important example of Renaissance architecture, as it is the first interior planned and constructed by the architect FIlippo Brunelleschi in the 1420s. Inside, there are sculptural doors and pulpits by Donatello and a fresco by Bronzino, although the main attraction is the purity of the architecture itself.
Florence also has a hinterland - the Chianti Classico wine zone - where one may visit several beautiful classical Italianate gardens as well as a number of "boutique" museums, attractive not only for their content (which is NOT on a level with that of the Florence museums but sometimes more accessible) but also the architectural interest of the buildings that house them and their wonderful locations.
There really are a lot more sites to explore in this city; use a guidebook or search the internet further to plan your trip.