If you're taking a leisurely trip to Amsterdam then I recommend half a day in the town of Haarlem. It's 15 minutes by train from Amsterdam and they run every few minutes. The area round the station is typically grotty but walk a kilometre and you're in the historic centre with its huge market square and massive church. It's a very quiet town (I suspect it's inhabited largely by commuters) with lots of ancient buildings and its own network of canals.
A few minutes from the market square is the Frans Hals museum, installed in some old almshouses set up for the poor men of the town. I don't know where the poor women went but the men must have been very happy here.
Hals is best known in the UK as the painter of The Laughing Cavalier (not laughing and not a cavalier, but hey); here you see what a fine portraitist he was, along with his large canvases of militia, very like the famous 'Night Watch'.
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