We noticed that you're using an unsupported browser. The TripAdvisor website may not display properly.
We support the following browsers:
Windows: Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome. Mac: Safari.

“Greatest Experience in a Beach Resort” 5 of 5 stars
Review of The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real

Save Saved
You added The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real to your Saves list
Best prices for your stay
Enter dates for best prices
Check In mm/dd/yyyy Check Out mm/dd/yyyy
Show Prices
Compare best prices from top travel sites
and 9 more sites!
The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real
5.0 of 5 Resort (All-Inclusive)   |   Playa de Bavaro, Punta Cana 23000, Dominican Republic   |  
Hotel website
  |  
  |  
  |  
Hotel amenities
Ranked #2 of 101 Hotels in Punta Cana
Calgary, Canada
Senior Contributor
40 reviews 40 reviews
20 hotel reviews
Reviews in 22 cities Reviews in 22 cities
24 helpful votes 24 helpful votes
“Greatest Experience in a Beach Resort”
5 of 5 stars Reviewed November 24, 2013

After a long but uneventful flight from Calgary with Air Transat, arrived at Punta Cana Airport, where immigration and baggage retrieval was efficient and took about a half hour. It’s nice to have the $15 landing card handed out aboard the flight. Air Transat was chosen ‘Best Vacation Airline’ by Skytrax and it showed: Aircraft was modern with good in-flight entertainment and courteous staff.
A quick taxi ride to the hotel ($30) allowed us to arrive in plenty of time for a late dinner, this being much preferable to the scheduled bus transfer.
The reception for the Reserve is separate from the one at the main Paradisus Palma Real, so be sure this is where you are dropped off.
We stayed at the Reserve before (January 2010) so we were quite familiar with the rooms and features of the resort. The current $1500 credit given to guests staying one week or more, allowed us to apply a $400 credit towards a room upgrade, so we elected to upgrade to a swim-up suite.
From check-in by Sara to check-out by Lara the two weeks we spent at the Reserve were as close to perfect as our holidays have ever been. We have travelled extensively and have stayed at beach resorts in Mexico, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Aruba, Maldives, Thailand, Cuba and other Dominican resorts, but this has been by far our best experience! After check-in, we proceeded to the Gabi Restaurant while our room was being prepared (due to the upgrade) and the luggage was taken to the room.
The suites are all very modern, clean and spacious and consist of a bedroom with 1 king or 2 queen beds, and a living room with pull-out couch, dining table and small kitchen. All of them have either a garden or balcony. 4 buildings are on each side of the Gabi restaurant and reception area in a half moon shape, around the pool, garden, grill, kids zone and spa.. Each building contains 24 rooms (as far as I could tell)
The garden is amazing, with secluded spots and the pool meandering throughout. The grill serves lunch and the whole resort is very child friendly.
The main building also contains the Aqua and Miso restaurants as well as a bar and entertainment area and a lounge with refreshments and Internet workstations. The rooms also have Wifi, but beware: Internet speed is slow.
The beach area is somewhat remote from the reserve, about a 10-20 minute walk, depending on location of your room. However, they have an excellent shuttle service for those who would prefer to get there faster. On the beach is the Gabi Beach Restaurant and bar which serves an excellent lunch and dinner.
Breakfast in the Gabi Restaurant offered many options buffet style, but be early if you like smoked salmon, as this is quickly snapped up by the guests. Eggs prepared on demand and a host of fruits are just some of the many options, many aimed at the younger crowd.
We chose to have all of our lunches at the Gabi Beach, as we tend to spend most of the day on the beach, but other options are available, both at the Reserve as well as at the main Palma Real building, where Reserve guests have full privileges.
Talking about restaurants: There are many restaurants with a variety of themes and we tried most of them: At the Reserve, Aqua serves modern fusion cuisine, Miso Japanese Teppanyaki (great show, especially for the young), the Hydro grill serves lunch as well as a buffet at the Gabi Restaurant, and elegant lunches and dinners at the Gabi Beach.
At the Palma Real, we tried the following:
Bana Bistro serves Asian fusion
Sushi Bar
Vento – Mediterranean cuisine
Market Grill – Grilled Meat and Seafood
Passion – High end French cuisine (extra charge)
The passion restaurant is heaed by a Spanish chef, who was garnered 6 Michelin stars and the food here is amazing, we tried the tasting menu, about 10 very small courses accompanied by 5 wines. Truly delicious and impeccable service.
The beach is spacious and there are enough chairs and palapas for all guests. Towels are freely available at the beach, so no need to drag them with you all the way from the room. There is ample opportunity to arrange for sailing or canoeing on the beach or tours and other motorized activities.
As mentioned earlier, this was our second visit, after about 3 ½ years. We loved our first visit, which was with 7 others, including a 3 year old. We were extremely pleased then, and this really influenced our decision for a return visit. What has changed? The Reserve is even better than before!
The main changes were to the entertainment and the level of service. Almost every night, there is now live music in one or two facilities: The Avenida Bar in the Palma Real and the Gabi bar in the Reserve.
The second change, and the more important one, has been the effort and training of the staff. Without exception everyone we met was friendly and genuinely interested in making sure that we had the best experience possible. This not only included administrative and restaurant staff, but also cleaning staff, gardeners, drivers etc. And although we speak a rudimentary Spanish, their knowledge of English has improved tremendously.
It is truly impossible to mention all the friendly people we met and sometimes had extensive conversations with, but here are some that didn’t escape my good but short memory:
Gabi Restaurant: Deuri, Angela Mercedes and Pedro Paulino
Gabi Beach Restaurant: Daniel, Wilson, Santo, Juan de Afa, Lilliana and Genivel Mauricio
Passion and Concierge: Laura Castillo
Sushi Bar: Jonathan Costa Bama
Avanida Bar: Sorbia
Front Desk: Sara and Lara
Of course, what also helped was that management arranged that most of the rain came during the night!

Room Tip: The swim-up rooms are amazing!
See more room tips
  • Stayed November 2013, traveled as a couple
    • 5 of 5 stars Value
    • 5 of 5 stars Location
    • 5 of 5 stars Sleep Quality
    • 5 of 5 stars Rooms
    • 5 of 5 stars Cleanliness
    • 5 of 5 stars Service
Was this review helpful? Yes 2
This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
Write a Review

2,294 reviews from our community

Traveler rating
    1,742
    372
    116
    37
    27
See reviews for
1176
693
17
24
Rating summary
  • Sleep Quality
    4.5 of 5 stars
  • Location
    4.5 of 5 stars
  • Rooms
    5 of 5 stars
  • Service
    4.5 of 5 stars
  • Value
    4.5 of 5 stars
  • Cleanliness
    5 of 5 stars
Traveler tips help you choose the right room.   Room tips (596)
Date | Rating
  • Dutch first
  • English first
  • French first
  • German first
  • Italian first
  • Portuguese first
  • Russian first
  • Spanish first
  • Any
English first
Sault Sainte Marie, Ontario, Canada
1 review
1 helpful vote 1 helpful vote
5 of 5 stars Reviewed November 24, 2013

Loved the beautiful Palma real reserve, fantastic spa, with unusual treatments, the water ritual was great tried it twice, grounds are spotless, Isabel deserves a star for just her, service plus plus plus, can't say enough about her wonderful staff and her warm and accomadating service. Look forward to going back in a few years.

Room Tip: The ground floor suites are fantastic, very quiet, easy access to the pool areas, patios lush and be...
See more room tips
  • Stayed November 2013, traveled with friends
    • 5 of 5 stars Value
    • 5 of 5 stars Location
    • 5 of 5 stars Sleep Quality
    • 5 of 5 stars Rooms
    • 5 of 5 stars Cleanliness
    • 5 of 5 stars Service
Was this review helpful? Yes 1
This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
Rafael T, General Manager at The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real, responded to this review, November 30, 2013
Dear Jennifer,

It is a privilege to know you consider us a great vacation destination. This kind of comment is a great incentive to all of us.

We cannot wait to welcome you back at The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real.

Sincerely,

Rafael Torres
Managing Director
Paradisus Resorts Punta Cana
Report response as inappropriate
This response is the subjective opinion of the management representative and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
NJ
Reviewer
5 reviews 5 reviews
Reviews in 5 cities Reviews in 5 cities
9 helpful votes 9 helpful votes
4 of 5 stars Reviewed November 22, 2013

We just returned from Punta Cana and had a great time, but this is not a five star resort. We traveled with three children ages (5, 3, and 6 months). We chose to stay at the Reserve because of the extra luxury and the Family Concierge.

Postives
1. The hotel itself is gorgeous. Modern, trendy and beautiful. The landscaping was breathtaking.
2. Weather was gorgeous. It rained a few times at night.
3. Our room was huge!!
4. Our concierges Millie and Anabelle were wonderful. They were very helpful and thoughtful - they helped us make reservations at restaurants, showed us around the resort, helped reserve spots at the pool and beach, provided all sorts of little extra treats for the kiddos (including a birthday cake and celebration for my son) and a very fun bubble bath and balloon party. They even helped us recover our lost luggage.
5. The beach is beautiful and there is plenty of availability for chairs and shade. They even provided beach toys and swimmies for the kids.
6. There are many pools and always space.
7. There were a lot of fun kid activities - bouncy house (although deflated half way through our trip), cooking classes, arts and crafts, rock wall, bungy bounce, playground, Wii, etc.
9. My kids loved checking out the flamingos

Negatives
1. The food is not so good. We had a good meal at Vento and a good meal at our apartment from Aqua. Otherwise, under whelmed.
2. Security seems to be an issue - 3 people told us to check to make sure that everything was in our luggage when it was brought to the room (including the airport valet). The lock on our backdoor was broken and window glass was not sealed.
3. Mosquitos are extremely nasty.
4. Our Dvd player wasn't connected in our bedroom. When we asked to connect it, they turned the tv black and white. My husband ultimately fixed it. The tv in the kids room wouldn't work.
5. The tv selection (English) is minimal and there are only a few dvds to borrow.
6. Babysitting would have cost us $30 an hour.
7. There is no evening entertainment for kids. At Beaches they have a 7:00 evening show for children, which my kids really enjoyed. Here, the shows were at 9 or later.
8. The staff at the kids club seemed a little overwhelmed with kids and a little disorganized. It looked like the kids spent a lot of time watching tv and not much time outside. I heard one staff member tell a young girl that she probably shouldn't have any more ice cream since she had already had three separate cones. It would have been nice if they would have allowed younger babies (under 1) just for napping. We didn't leave the kids.

Overall, we had a great time enjoying the pool/beach and being together in the beautiful surroundings, but were surprised at the inconsistencies of the resort.

Room Tip: Loved the Family Concierge rooms
See more room tips
  • Stayed November 2013, traveled with family
    • 3 of 5 stars Value
    • 4 of 5 stars Location
    • 3 of 5 stars Sleep Quality
    • 3 of 5 stars Rooms
    • 4 of 5 stars Cleanliness
    • 4 of 5 stars Service
Was this review helpful? Yes 7
This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
Rafael T, General Manager at The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real, responded to this review, November 23, 2013
Dear guest,

In our effort to continuously improve the quality of our services and facilities, we put our greatest interest and value in our guests' opinion.

I am very concerned to learn that your stay with us was not up to what you expected. I assure you that all your observations have been taken with the utmost importance.

I hope to have the pleasure to serve you again at The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real.

Sincerely,

Rafael Torres
Managing Director
Paradisus Resorts Punta Cana
Report response as inappropriate
This response is the subjective opinion of the management representative and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
Miami, Florida
2 reviews
Reviews in 2 cities Reviews in 2 cities
3 helpful votes 3 helpful votes
5 of 5 stars Reviewed November 22, 2013

I visited The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real two times this year (June 2013 and November 2013) with my husband and son Jean who is 8 years old. We had been to The Reserve at Paradisus Punta Cana about two years ago which was also very good, but this year we decided to visit The Reserve at Palma Real instead and we were very happy with our decision. We have chosen the Family Concierge section both times, because of the added amenities which make the vacation an even better experience. We've been to most of the other resorts in the top 10 list of Punta Cana Hotels and this resort is by far better than the rest for many reasons. There are several resorts listed in the top 10, which are very, very, very inferior to this resort. Let me list some of the details that make this resort the perfect place to vacation:

Property Grounds: Simply Beautiful! Everything is well taken care of, they grass, the pools, the rooms, everything looks very refined, classy and elegant. I don't think that there is anything that could possibly be improved, because it is excellent as is.

Rooms: The rooms are simply superb. They are very elegantly decorated, very spacious and clean. Since we've stayed in both occasions in the Family Concierge section, there is always a welcome kit inside of the room for our son, which includes a backpack, sun lotion, toothpaste, toothbrush, shampoo, etc. There is also a robe and slippers for all three of us, which makes my son feel special.

The Staff: All of the staff go out of their way to make you feel very welcome. They will go out of their way to attend to all of your needs and requests. Since we were staying in Family Concierge, at arrival we were handed a mobile phone which we could use during our stay to contact the Concierge staff if we had any question or requests during our stay. In both occasions we've been assisted by Andy who is part of the Family Concierge staff and has always gone out of his way to make our trip very enjoyable and relaxing. He would take care of our dinner reservations and would even check up on our son while he was at the Kids Zone, just in case our son needed anything or just wanted to contact us, which means that we could go off to the Gym or Spa to relax knowing that our son was very well taken care of, not only because of Andy, but also because of the superb staff at the Kids Zone.

Kids Zone: Let me begin saying that I have never seen a children’s' area like this at any other resort. The Kids Zone is very, very spacious. They have an area for very little ones and an area for bigger kids like my son. Kids can choose to play in the outdoor area, play inside with WII, XBOX or Playstation, watch TV, etc. At lunch time we didn't have to worry about picking our son up, because they would make sure he ate even if it meant preparing something just for him like pasta with white sauce or whatever else he felt like eating. They have snacks and beverages for the children and even an ice cream machine. My son loves to be at the Kids Zone, he will wake up early every day, get ready and ask us to drop him off. The staff here are great with the kids, as soon as you walk in you can see how all of the children enjoy being there and that is all thanks to Natali, Wanda, Angel, Ynes and Nicaurys. Our son has really grown very fond of each one of you, and we are very thankful for that. In fact, I don't think that there is any way in the world that he would agree to go to any other resort because none have such a special space for kids like The Reserve.

The Food: There are many different options for breakfast, lunch and dinner, in both The Reserve area as well as in the main resort. We really enjoyed NAOS for lunch, while Vento for dinner was also very good. We've dined in many of the restaurants (Market Grill, Gaby Beach, Aqua, etc.) and all of them served us great food, we've never complained. If you get hungry between meals you will also find snacks throughout the resort at any time of the day. We would also order room service for breakfast and the service was quick and the food was always very good and well presented. Special thanks to Juan Diego! During our last visit a couple of weeks ago Juan Diego was on vacation, but the person that was in charge of room service was as friendly and provided the same quality of service.

Drinks: You will find many selections at this resort, although I would like to find Midori the next time I visit, but that is just a personal preference. We enjoyed sitting at the different bars and speaking to the bartenders, while we had a nice cocktail. All the bartenders are always so attentive, special thanks to Felix Sanchez, Fernando, Juan at The Reserve, as well as the bartenders at the main resort, which were also great.

Spa: The Spa is great, especially for couples. They have saunas, therapy treatments, messages, Jacuzzis, etc.

Gym: The Reserve has one of the best Gyms I've seen in a resort. The equipment is very modern and up to date, the space is sufficient, you can watch TV while you workout, and they even have classes at different times of the day, like spinning for example.

All I can add is that we can't wait to go back!

Room Tip: All the rooms are equally great.
See more room tips
  • Stayed November 2013, traveled with family
    • 5 of 5 stars Value
    • 5 of 5 stars Location
    • 5 of 5 stars Sleep Quality
    • 5 of 5 stars Rooms
    • 5 of 5 stars Cleanliness
    • 5 of 5 stars Service
Was this review helpful? Yes
This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
Rafael T, General Manager at The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real, responded to this review, November 23, 2013
Dear guest,

I would like to thank you for having chosen The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real Resort as your holiday destination for the second time.

I appreciate your compliments to Andy, Natali, Wanda, Angel, Ynes and Nicaurys; therefore I am very proud to hear that they did their best in order to turn your vacation in a memorable stay.

Once again, thank you for extending us your impressions and I hope to have the pleasure to welcome you again.

Sincerely,

Rafael Torres
Managing Director
Paradisus Resorts Punta Cana
Report response as inappropriate
This response is the subjective opinion of the management representative and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
North Jersey
Senior Reviewer
6 reviews 6 reviews
5 hotel reviews
Reviews in 6 cities Reviews in 6 cities
18 helpful votes 18 helpful votes
5 of 5 stars Reviewed November 22, 2013

This was our second trip to the Reserve at the Paradisus Palma Real. We love it so much that we plan on revisiting every year. We own a timeshare with another company and are definitely considering buying a timeshare with Club Melia. The staff is amazing and not only meet, but far exceed every expectation you may have from the time you check in till the time you check out. They are sincerely grateful for your business and cater to your every desire to make your stay perfect. Lara in the reception area is a doll and extremely helpful with any concerns or questions you may have. Gloria and Felix are THE BEST bartenders and friends......we actually keep in touch with them from the USA through Facebook! We have not met one member of the staff that wouldn't greet you with a genuine smile or go out of their way to make sure you're happy. We love the family at the Reserve and HIGHLY recommend it to anyone considering a trip to Punta Cana......you WILL NOT be disappointed!!!

Room Tip: Swim up suites are SWEEEEET! Get a room closest to the main pool so you can swim right over to the b...
See more room tips
  • Stayed November 2013, traveled as a couple
    • 5 of 5 stars Value
    • 5 of 5 stars Location
    • 5 of 5 stars Sleep Quality
    • 5 of 5 stars Rooms
    • 5 of 5 stars Cleanliness
    • 5 of 5 stars Service
Was this review helpful? Yes
This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
Rafael T, General Manager at The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real, responded to this review, November 23, 2013
Dear guest,

I would like to thank you for choosing The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real Resort as the place to spend your last holidays.

I sincerely appreciate your respects on the efforts and dedication demonstrated by Lara, Gloria and Felix since is thanks to members like them that we are able to accomplish our goal-the total satisfaction of our guests.

We will be expecting your next visit.

Sincerely,

Rafael Torres
Managing Director
Paradisus Resorts Punta Cana
Report response as inappropriate
This response is the subjective opinion of the management representative and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
New York City, New York
Reviewer
4 reviews 4 reviews
4 hotel reviews
Reviews in 2 cities Reviews in 2 cities
1 helpful vote 1 helpful vote
5 of 5 stars Reviewed November 22, 2013

My hubby and I stayed a couple of nights at The Palma Real and then we moved over to "The Reserve" .We usually do this because we like both Hotels. When ready to move, we were assisted at the reception by Jose Vargas. Jose was Professional, patient,cordial and very friendly (as is all the staff we encountered). Once we moved to The Reserve we then were assigned a beautiful young lady as our Family concierge, Annabel Lopez. Annabel greeted with a beautiful smile and even though we were not new to the Hotel, she wanted to assure we knew all about the Hotel and it accomodations. She made all our Restaurant reservations, and when I asked her about getting my hair done on the night of our anniversary she was able to get me squeezed in even though the salon was packed due to a wedding. I hope when my hubby and I go back next year we are able to have Annabel again, We surely will ask for her if we don't.

  • Stayed November 2013, traveled as a couple
    • 5 of 5 stars Value
    • 5 of 5 stars Location
    • 5 of 5 stars Sleep Quality
    • 5 of 5 stars Rooms
    • 5 of 5 stars Cleanliness
    • 5 of 5 stars Service
Was this review helpful? Yes
This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
Rafael T, General Manager at The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real, responded to this review, November 23, 2013
Dear Iris,

I would like to thank you for having written us after having stayed with us. It is a pleasure for me to hear that José Vargas and Annabel López went the extra mile in their effort to turn your vacation in an unforgettable moment. We are aware that staff members like them, are our most important asset.

Once again, thank you for your valuable comments and observations and I look forward to welcoming you back at this, your second home in Punta Cana.

Sincerely,

Rafael Torres
Managing Director
Paradisus Resorts Punta Cana
Report response as inappropriate
This response is the subjective opinion of the management representative and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
Senior Reviewer
6 reviews 6 reviews
5 hotel reviews
Reviews in 5 cities Reviews in 5 cities
11 helpful votes 11 helpful votes
5 of 5 stars Reviewed November 21, 2013 via mobile

The hotel is very beautiful. I were at the reserve with my family and we had a great time there. Mr. Jorge Zorrilla took care of us very kindly and made our vacations perfect. Will come back again for sure. Rodrigo Colonna.

  • Stayed November 2013
    • 5 of 5 stars Value
    • 5 of 5 stars Location
    • 5 of 5 stars Rooms
    • 5 of 5 stars Cleanliness
    • 5 of 5 stars Service
Was this review helpful? Yes
This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
Rafael T, General Manager at The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real, responded to this review, November 23, 2013
Dear Rodrigo Colonna,

I am very proud to have received your impressions and I sincerely appreciate your respects on the efforts and dedication demonstrated by Jorge Zorrilla, since is thanks to staff members like Jorge that we are able to accomplish our goal-the total satisfaction of our guests.

Once more, thank you for extending us your experience and I look forward to welcoming you back again to your second home The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real.

Sincerely,

Rafael Torres
Managing Director
Paradisus Resorts Punta Cana
Report response as inappropriate
This response is the subjective opinion of the management representative and not of TripAdvisor LLC.
Hotels you might also like...
mm/dd/yyyy mm/dd/yyyy
Price Your Stay

Been to The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real? Share your experiences!

Write a Review Add Photos & Videos

Additional Information about The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real

Address: Playa de Bavaro, Punta Cana 23000, Dominican Republic
Phone Number:
Location: Caribbean > Dominican Republic > La Altagracia Province > Punta Cana
Amenities:
Beach Business Center with Internet Access Casino and Gambling Fitness Center with Gym / Workout Room Free Breakfast Free High Speed Internet ( Wi-Fi ) Free Parking Children Activities ( Kid / Family Friendly ) Restaurant Room Service Spa Suites Swimming Pool Wheelchair access
Hotel Style:
#1 Family Hotel in Punta Cana
#1 Casino Hotel in Punta Cana
#2 Luxury Hotel in Punta Cana
#2 Spa Hotel in Punta Cana
#2 Top resorts Hotel in Punta Cana
#2 On the Beach Hotel in Punta Cana
#3 Romantic Hotel in Punta Cana
Price Range (Based on Average Rates): $$$$
Hotel Class:5 star — The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real 5*
Official Description (provided by the hotel):
Explore The Reserve, our new boutique resort within a resort, designed for those whose stay in a luxury suite is as important as sun, sea and sand. Including three pools and a la carte restaurants, YHI Spa and gym, Swim up Suites with direct access to the pool Family Concierge Suites. Take benefit of your stay at The Reserve and use its facilities and services as well as the ones in Paradisus Palma Real Resort. ... more   less 
Reservation Options:
TripAdvisor is proud to partner with Jetsetter, Booking.com, Expedia, BookIt.com, Melia, Tingo, Travelocity, Priceline, Agoda, Hotels.com and Odigeo so you can book your The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real reservations with confidence. We help millions of travelers each month to find the perfect hotel for both vacation and business trips, always with the best discounts and special offers.
Also Known As:
The Reserve At Paradisus Palma Real Hotel Punta Cana

Owners: What's your side of the story?

If you own or manage The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real, register now for free tools to enhance your listing, attract new reviews, and respond to reviewers.