Canmore is a great little town...and not inundated with Tourists like you get in Banff or Lake Louise. It also has a few great restaurants and some great things to do. It is just east of Banff National Park...and there are some great hikes. But if this is your first trip I would probably recommend Banff or Lake Louise or somewhere in between. Banff would be ideal as it has a more diverse choice in accommodation options...from high end hotels, to more economical options as well as some great B&Bs.
Banff is about 45 minutes from Lake Louise and 2.5hrs to the Columbia Icefields...Although the Columbia Icefields Parkway is one of the most beautiful drives you could ever take - with a multitude of stops along the way.
Hikes - Johnston's Canyon up to the Inkpots would do - about 4kms one way...so 8kms -ish. there are 7 waterfalls in the first few Kms...and this part of the trail is paved, and easy to moderate. Once you pass the upperfalls it is about another hour and twenty minutes to the Inkpots. The trail becomes more remote and definitely a lot fewer people. Good sturdy hiking shoes is what I would recommend for the second part of the trail. It takes you through a forested area most of the way...and then opens up into a large meadow. The Wildflowers would be in bloom and I think a Must Do.
From Lake Louise the two most popular hikes are Lake Agnes - My Fave and the Plain of 6 glaciers. Lake Agnes is about 45min to an hour one way. Moderate. You pass Mirror Lake and the Behive Mountain. When you get to Lake Agnes there is a Tea House with Lemonade and Sandwiches. (Expensive) I recommend bringing your own snacks. The the other hike, the Plain of 6 Glaciers is a bit more arduous - but not too steep. When you get to the Tea House at the end of this one (not the same tea house as Lake Agnes) you can continue past right to the end of the trail and see Abbotts Hut on the other side of the Glacier. This hike is not as scenic in my opinion, the Victoria Glacier looks like a big rock pit.
Not far from Lake Louise is Moraine Lake - A MUST SEE...I think even prettier than Lake Louise. There are a few hikes here. A short one to the top of the Rock Pile gives you an amazing view of this beautiful lake. Another hike that I liked here was Constellation Lakes. Not too much in the way of an elevation gain...but when you get there, you have to transverse some huge boulders.
A few other things that I think everyone should see - Takakkaw Falls - this is a 254 meter high waterfall... Not far from here is Emerald Lake - some nice hikes here - the one around the lake is beautiful.
The drive up to Jasper is one of the most beautiful drives you can do...I would recommend a couple of nights in Jasper. The town has a similar feel as Jasper - doesn't feel as touristy as Banff. The stops to make between Lake Louise and Jasper would include Bow Lake, Peyto Lake, Mistaya Canyon (my have). And of course the Columbia Icefields themselves. The drive from Lake Louise to Jasper is about 3 1/2 hours...but I would give yourself a good 8hrs...in order to see everything along the way.
Jasper has some Must See's as well. Athabasca Falls, Maligne Canyon as well as Maligne Lake Road....and so much more.
hope this helps gets you started. I lived in this area for years and Loved it!!