The ferry from Bellingham to Victoria is seasonal and not in operation currently. I still suggest the trip (I really enjoy Victoria) but you would have to take a ferry from somewhere else.
You won't need winter clothes, but waterproof jacket for sure. We wear layers under that for the fall.
It is hard to give day trip suggestions right now because it is currently raining like crazy and the idea of going outside and driving is giving me a headache. What kind of activities do you like?
The Pickford http://www.pickfordfilmcenter.org/ is having its annual Doctober festival - if you are here for the 19th Bean to Bar is playing with a pre-show chocolate tasting.
Also, let us know what kind of food you like and there are a lot of great places to eat around here - the main social activity during "rainy season".