We have just finished Salkantay trek. We did the trek through a company ( Bioandean) who I would thoroughly recommend. I have written a review that you can check out if you like.
We met a couple of girls doing the trek independently but honestly I think it's just so much easier to do it through a company. We paid US $390 but this included all permits and entry fees to Machu Picchu. The first night near the pass is very cold and the companies have a shelter under which tents are set up. If you were on your own you would just be out in the cold.
There aren't any lodges on first and second night but you could find somewhere at Santa Theresa and the town near Machu Picchu on the 3rd and 4th nights
If you go through a company, they provide tent and sleep mat and you can hire sleeping bags through the company or at camping places in Cusco.
You can buy water and basic snacks at each nights camp places but the prices are a bit inflated. Our chef boiled water and we could fill our bottles at each stop. All meals were included in the price. Btw the food was fantastic.
Most people do the trek in 5 days 4 nights but you could finish near Santa Theresa and bus to Machu Picchu if you were short of time.
You will need to check weather for November as we were there in August
Would also recommend Arequipa, beautiful town. We did Colca canyon 1 night 2 day tour which was fantastic.
Definitely allow a few days in Cusco, it's lovely. Puno is more a pass through place. We spent the night on a reed island which was really good and also did a 2 day tour to Amantani and Taquile islands were we stayed with a local family. That was good too.
I wrote a blog as I went - it may give you a bit more of an idea