You definitely want to stay in town within the canal rings just like John advises. There will probably be three main areas where Celtic fans will congregate in the pubs and bars: the Dam Square, the Leiseplein, and the Rembrandtplein.
I would not recommend the Dam Square area as it simply is not my favorite part of town and tends to ripoff tourists. The Rembrandtplein always reminds me very much of the Grassmarket in Edinburgh (if you know it). That said, my personal preference is the Leidseplein area. Both areas have a great vibe and you will NOT be at a loss for something to do as both will go on until late in the night.
Posters familiar with those type places will hopefully come on and give some specific recommendations for sports bars but be forewarned that Dutch pubs are among the best in the world rivaling those in the UK. The Dutch are incredibly friendly people and EVERYONE speaks English.
If you are looking for recommendations as to a specific place to stay, give a budget and the type of place you are looking for and suggestions will be made.