Don't forget to thank Dutchguy too! ;-)
Well the Dutch don't really eat Dutch food anymore. We like Asian, mediterranean and all kinds of international foods. I think it's hard to find a restaurant in the center without tourists in it but you could try the studenty brown bar Blaffende Vis (barking fish) in De Jordaan, it only has a few simple dishes.
Or De Peper in OT301, there may be foreigners but most likely expats. It's a vegetarian (or even vegan?) restaurant run by the OT301 crowd, some of whom are expats, I'm not sure if they're still officially squatters or now legalized renters. Just to describe the vibe.
Outside the center you will find less tourists. You may want to try some Surinamese food at Lalla Rookh, simple (not very pretty) decorations and good food. Many Dutch love Surinamese food. Ever tried spicey peanut soup? ;-) They probably also have some Javanese (Indonesian) dishes. Our colonial past caused those cuisines to mingle a bit in Suriname.
And you will find many tourists trying Indonesian rijsttafel: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rijsttafel but it's really worth a try. I love it (but may be biased with my part Indonesian background). If you're looking for a less touristy vibe then have the simpler version at Restaurant Kadijk on Kadijksplein, which is more a like a cafe, but with delicious Indonesian dishes including a small version of rijsttafel. There are various discussions about 'rijsttafel' (rice table) on the forums so you could also do a search in the Amsterdam forum (see search box below), it's often misspelled as 'rijstafel' (crescent table? ;-) ) as well so you could search for that too.
I guess it also depends on where you're staying, I don't know if you're okay with 20 minute tram rides just to go eat. But for example Lalla Rookh can also be combined with many other sights in eastern Amsterdam, just let me know if you want to know more.
Edited: 9:01 pm, August 21, 2013