You are right, there is no bridge. There likely will never be a bridge. I hope not. There is no un-scenic way to get between Vancouver and Victoria, unless perhaps you travel at night, or sleep the whole way.
If you go on the coach as the last poster suggested, you won't need to book. Either get a ticket downtown (Victoria or Vancouver) for the bus, which will take you onto the ferry and downtown on the other side, or, buy a ticket on the ferry after you walk on. You would only need to book if you were driving on, and even then you probably wouldn't need to book if you were travelling mid-week. Check out www.bcferries.com for ferry info. Be aware that this is a longer (time-wise) option. It will take about 45mins to drive from downtown Vancouver to the ferry, then 1 hr 45 minutes on the ferry, then probably 1/2 hour at least to get to downtown Victoria (this is non-rush hour timing). Allow some time for transfers and you are looking at quite some time.
The float plane is an affordable (and faster) and very scenic alternative. They are Harbour Air and go from the Inner Harbour (downtown Victoria) to Coal Harbour (downtown Vancouver). They have regularly scheduled flights and are on the web.